Database management is a system of managing the information that supports a business’s operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and applications making changes as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged due to unexpected failure. It is part of the overall infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a collection of tables that arrange data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that contain information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most used database type currently. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also simpler to update data since it does not require changing several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is focused on costs, scalability and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of external views based on different data models. It also can include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.

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